Groei Ontwikkelingsfases

  • Jean Piaget, Cognitive Theory
  • Westerhof, Robert Kegan, Heanny, Yount
  • Hegel, Jung, Erikson

James Fowler se fases van geloofsontwikkeling

  • James Fowler:
    • Candler Professor of Theology and
    • Human Development at Emory University
  • United Methodist Church
  • Sielkundige
Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning

 

Padkaarte

  • Verskillende soorte padkaarte
  • Elkeen se pelgrimsreis is uniek (soms ontmoet ons by oasisse)
  • GELOOF – ‘n Wyse van leef wat alle aspekte van ons lewe raak (‘n werkwoord)
  • “Geen geen stadium is beter is as ‘n ander nie”
  • Elke stadium bied egter ‘n breër en dieper verstaan en ervaring van geloof as die vorige”.
  • Fowler se geloofstadiums fokus op HOE ons glo versus WAT ons glo

Geloofsoorgange

  • Die geloofsreis impliseer dikwels radikale veranderings met gepaard-gaande krisisse in mens se lewe.
  • Van die oorgange word gekenmerk deur fundamentele teenstrydighede (ambiguity) en ‘n diep ervaring van alleenwees/isolasie (deep sense of alienation)
  • Omdat die geloofsoorgange so moeilik en pynvol is, bly mense dikwels eerder in ‘n vorige fase as om die onsekerheid van ‘n oorgang deur te gaan. Mense bly in ‘n fase totdat die pyn om te bly waar jy is te erg raak.
  • Indien mens geriefshalwe aanbly in ‘n fase waar mens nie meer tuis is nie, ervaar jy die inherente wete dat jy nie outentiek en kongruent is nie.

Dimensies van Geloofsverandering

  • Hoe mens oor sake dink
  • Jou vermoeë om ander se standpunte in te sien
  • Die manier waarop mens morele gevolgtrekkings maak
  • Die manier en mate waartoe mens grense defineer rondom hul geloof en geloofsgemeenskap
  • Die wyse waarop hul omgaan met gesagsfigure ” en hul ” waarheidsaansprake
  • Die wyse waarop hul ‘n wêreld-siening vorm
  • Die wyse waarop hul simbole verstaan en daarmee omgaan
Even though our physiological gifts start out the same– cutting teeth, crawling and walking, learning language, etc.– what we make of these gifts depends on

 

  • our desire and will,
  • our imagination and intelligence(s), and
  • the opportunities life places before us.

Fowler se 6 Geloofsfases

Fase 1 – Die onskuldige

  • Voorskoolse kinders (tot en met ongeveer 6 jaar)
  • AANVANKLIK: Ouers (maar veral jou Ma) stel vir jou God voor  (geborgenheid, sekuriteit, liefde, ens.)
  • LATER: Ervaar en verstaan God en geloof deur familie-ervaring. Het geen interne strukture om ervarings mee uit te sorteer nie.

“Experiences and images that occur and take form before the child is six have powerful and long-lasting effects on the life of faith, both positive and negative.” (Fowler)

Fase 2 – Die letterlike

KINDERS

  • Vanaf ouderdom 6
    • Begin vermoeë ontwikkel om ervarings te kategoriseer
    • Nuwe invloede wat ook inwerk op die kind se wêreld
  • Interpreteer stories en verduidelikings van geloof letterlik
  • Assosieer met “Mense soos ons”
  • Krities teenoor “mense wat anders as ons is”

VOLWASSENES

  • Soek:
    • ‘n meer letterlike vertolking van die Skrif
    • Sekuriteit
    • ‘n Diep ervaring van toewyding en oortuiging
  • Word sterk beïnvloed deur reëls en outokratiese leeringe.
  • God – ‘n streng en regverdige, maar liefdevolle ouer.
  • ~20% volwassenes in die stadium van geloof – M Scott Peck

“Religious maturity and human maturity are intimately connected. An immature religious view of life may be the result of not having negotiated the stages of human growth. However, religious structures themselves have at times inhibited human growth.” (John J. Heaney, 1984)

Fase 3 – Die konformis

  • Konvensionele kerkgangers
  • Konformerende of “stam” fase – Fokus op verwagtinge en opinies van persone wat belangrik geag word (significant others)
  • Diep oortuigings, toegewyde werkers
  • Eksterne outoriteite:
    • “wat die Bybel sê”, of “wat predikante leer”
  • Kan persone nie buite hul geloofstelsel staan en dit in-diepte kritiseer nie.
  • Sien God as ‘n teïstiese (transcendent) wese
    • Ongemaklik met die idee van ‘n goddelike binne jou
  • Wil graag “behoort”.
  • Kerkgemeenskap definieer hul identiteit, verskaf steun in moeilike tye, word gesien as uitgebreide familie.
  • Verkies harmonie – Voel bedreig deur kontroversie
  • Dualistiese geloofsraamwerk:
    • Goed vs Sleg
    • Heilig vs Sekulêr
    • Christen vs Nie-Christen
    • Gered vs Nie-gered
  • Onvoldoende begrip van eie identiteit
  • Kan nie ‘n onafhanklike perspektief konstueer en onderhou nie.

“Who am I?  Where am I going?  During this time they (the adolescents) begin to question the value system, beliefs, and attitudes they received from their parents, because they discover, to their shock, that adults are not always right.” (Yount, 1996)

“…because of this new found way of thinking, the adolescent may begin to doubt and question their earlier religious training received from parents and other adults. This may seem as antagonistic but it is necessary because honest doubt often leads to faith”. “A person who does not have the courage to doubt may not acquire the wisdom to believe” (Strunk, 1959)

“Adolescents begin to develop a sense of separateness and responsibility. They come to realize, perhaps only intuitively or unconsciously, that they are separate people subject to the same fundamental existential aloneness as every other person is. Along with this, however, come the sense of individual responsibility for facing life and the dilemmas it poses”.  (Paloutzian, 1996)

Fase 4 – Die kritikus

  • Baie moeilike oorgang.
  • Gedryf deur strewe na Kongruensie / outentiekheid
  • Twee sub-fases:
    • Ontwaking Van Nuwe SelfbewussynVerantwoordelikheid vir eie dade, waardes, geloof Neem posisie in teen “significant others” van vroeëre fases.
    • Kritiese HerevalueringWaardes, geloof en verwagting van vroeër Afbreek van wat geleer en “ervaar” is tot op hede
  • Onafhanklikheid
  • Non-konformis
  • Evalueer oorgelewerde waardes, geloof, wêreldsienings en aksies krities
  • Fokus dikwels op foute, ongerymdhede, onbeantwoorde aspekte en oor-simplistiese oplossings.
  • Uitpak van vorige geloof en praktyke van vorige geloofsgemeenskappe
  • Ontwikkel respek en vertroue in eie gevoelens, intuisie en persoonlike oordeel.
  • Die Kritikus beskou dit as belangrik om self verantwoordelikheid te neem vir eie geloof, besluite kongruensie/outentiekheid.
  • Nie meer bereid om blindelings die skare te volg nie. Voel onttuis in strukture wat van hulle verwag om “afhanklik” te wees.
  • Begin betrokke raak by die aktiwiteite en geloof van ander groepe waarmee hul nie vroeër sou assosieer nie.
  • Behou slegs simbole indien dit in bruikbare konsepte kan vertaal word.
  • Voel tuis in groepe wat intellektuele stimulasie en uitdagings bied en nie eksterne of konvensionele verwagtinge koester nie.
  • Waardeer forums waar hul mag vrae vra, en waar divergensie in geloof waardeer word.
  • Gemaklik met kritiek, debat en selfs verskille

Fase 5 – Die siener

  • KLAARBLYKLIKE TEENSTRYDIGHEDE!!
  • Selfversekerde, nuut-ontdekte self word gekonfronteer met die diepte van die onbewuste en die onbekende.
  • Bewuswording van realiteite van die dood – dws. middeljare
  • Fowler: Fase begin rondom vier gewaarwordings:
  1. Balansering van teenpole in jou lewe
    • Beide oud en jonk,
    • Beide jou manlike en vroulike dimensies
    • Jou bewuste vs. jou skadu self
  2. Waarheid is baie meer kompleks en multivormig
  3. Geloofsgroei
    • Vanaf die reduksionele benadering van die Kritikus na Konseptionele verstaan van simbole, mites en liturgie.
  • Tweede naiwiteit – ‘n post-kritiese ontvanklikheid en gereedheid vir deelname in die realiteite wat tot uitdrukking kom in simbole en mites
  1. Opregte Openheid vir waarhede van ander tradisies en gemeenskappe
  • Kan identifiseer met perspektiewe anders as hul eie
    (maar nie ‘n onkritiese of totale aanvaarding nie)
  • Identifiseer gemaklik met mense van alle rasse, sosio-ekonomiese status en verskillende geloofstelsels.
  • ie Siener se geloof is die Siener s’n – ‘n Diep-gewortelde geloof wat volkome aansluit by al die ander dimensies van hul lewens kongruensie
  • Sieners voel tuis met misterie en die grootsheid (vastness) van die onbekende. Besef onvermoeë om “alles” te verstaan.
  • Grense van die fase is gewoonlik breed en difuus

Fase 6 – Die heiliges

  • Twee belangrike oorgange:
    • Verwydering van die eie ek as lewens fokus.
      ‘n Skuif weg vanaf normale menslike obsessies met oorlewing, sekuriteit, en erkenning (Maslow se hierargie van menslike behoeftes)
    • ‘n Skuif na die volledige aanvaarding van God/die goddelike in alle dimensies van die lewe.
  • Fowler: Slegs 1.6% van mense ouer as 61 jaar!
  • Voorbeelde:
    • Bonhoefer, Suster Theresa, Mandela, Martin Luther King, Biskop Tutu

Fowler’s Stages Of Faith

For Fowler, both faith and love fuse reason and emotion, love and faith follow similar dynamics of growth. Life is viewed as a “pilgrimage” in which a quest and a hunger receive enough satisfaction to avoid despair, along with enough dissatisfaction to keep the pursuit alive. For him, faith is the ultimate category of consciousness. Even though he defines it so it does not refer to religious beliefs or indeed to religion at all, for Fowler faith refers to a person’s ultimate place of trust and commitment . Faith for Fowler is an active “mode-of-being-in-relation” that draws out our deepest commitment, belief, love, risk, and hope.

Love best represents that dynamic, because it keeps the focus on both the direction and the intensity of the pilgrimage. Love reminds us that the direction is personal and intimate. Love reminds us that commitment, belief, risk, and hope are personal ventures (wagers) in behalf of other human beings. To the extent that we are in relationship with others who interact with us, show consistency in their caring for us, and provide us trustworthy feedback, to that extent we will form reliable images of ourselves, and maintain our identity even while we are changing it.

The modern Jewish philosopher Martin Buber provided profound insight with his definition of “I-Thou” as the ultimate relationship. We must live our lives among those we view and treat as “Thous” who call forth, confirm, and challenge our “I.” This I-Thou relationship lies at the heart of our most intimate experiences with another person, but it also fuels our relationships with the larger, more impersonal world of vocation and leisure. Through I-Thou love, vocation can become transformed into Calling, the sense of destiny and adventure inherent in satisfying work; leisure can become Envisioning Playfulness, the sense of exploration and discovery inherent in fulfilling our dreams. Love is the dynamic that embraces you and

Piaget and Kohlberg have given us, Fowler says, “a new perspective on human thought, valuing, and behavior. They have challenged us to see that it is not just the contents of our ideas and values that differ; at various stages in our development the fundamental patterns of operation [the way we think things work] may be quite different.”

Our “structures of thinking” help us to see how we reason and make judgments and preferences at different stages of life. “They are not conscious; we are not aware of them in a way in which we could explain them. Rather, they are the implicit rules underlying consciousness . They follow the same trajectory among different cultures, nationalities, and language groups .

What do we mean by consciousness? Consciousness is “a patterned process of thinking and valuing, and the unfolding awareness we develop of that patterned process.” What is a stage? Fowler defines the kind of stage that he, Kohlberg, and Piaget employ, as “a structural whole of integrated operations of thinking and valuing that is available to a person at a given time.” Fowler also claims that each stage is “hierarchical, sequential, and invariant.”

The dynamic that enables one person to move richly and powerfully into the later stages is, Fowler says, “the interplay between an active, structuring self and an equally dynamic environment. Even though our physiological gifts start out the same cutting teeth, crawling and walking, learning language, etc. what we make of these gifts depends on our desire and will, our imagination and intelligence(s) and the opportunities life places before us.

Kohlberg and Piaget stand in the tradition of Kant in making a rigorous distinction between reason and emotion (or as Piaget would term it, cognition, the structures of knowing, and affection (the motive-force of knowing). Kohlberg also believes they are distinct, but adds that they are inseparable and interpenetrating in every mental act. In contrast, Erikson and Fowler stand in the tradition of Hegel and Jung. They all recognize the impact of irrational, unconscious dynamics on what we like to call rationality. They emphasize the power of symbols to kindle the imagination in ways that require a different kind of “logic” to describe.

Die inligting is beskikbaar in die oorspronklike Powerpoint format vanaf Gerrit by

Email Gerrit op die link ⇒ ggenis@mailzone.co.za